Since the turn of the millennium, this ratio has increased considerably.”. Plant Breeding Vital to the Economy, Environment Productivity Growth. European Commission. 2.0. The Likert-scale is one of the most used and reliable scales to measure opinions and underlying motives of behavior (Burns and Bush, 2008). That’s because, due to plant breeding innovations, the EU has been able to prevent natural habitat from being turned into farmland. The approval process can also add substantial costs. 75, 2310–2315. J. Agr. About 45% of the respondents agree or strongly agree with the statement “The use of CRISPR-Cas technology plays an important role within the development of the products of our company.” In general, the results show no clear tendency in the current importance of use within the companies across the different seed sectors. Beckmann, V., Soregaroli, C., Wesseler, J. The vast majority of the respondents agree or strongly agree (30.3% and 39.4%, respectively) with the statement in Q8: “The decision of the EU Court of Justice has a negative impact on the investments in CRISPR-Cas technology within the company.” There appears to be a strong negative effect of the decision of the CJEU on the investments in CRISPR-Cas technology. In some species such as tulips, the sepals and petal… Defra supports the UK plant breeding industry on its How to manage the Union’s diversity: the regulation of new plant breeding technologies in Confédération paysanne and Others. Plant Sci. The Dutch seed sector also contributes 60% of applications for plant breeder rights (Government of the Netherlands, 2017), making it a core location for the development of plant reproduction materials in the EU. This is a sensible approach, as it would also avoid the need for labeling products and related problems derived from plants developed by exempted NPBTs. In summary, the regulatory environment effects the costs and benefits of investments in NPBTs. While they most strongly believe regulatory costs outweigh the benefits of CRISPR-Cas (b), on average they disagree that the ruling will negatively affect competitiveness. 68 (1), 182–198. If that is food without mutations, we’re fine with that.” This would, however, only be true for companies who compete within the EU-market. Besides the strong tendency toward agreement with the statement in results of Q9, three respondents specifically expressed their concerns about the competitiveness for the EU. When this is not the case, because of imperfect information and financial considerations, a policy combining ex-ante regulatory standards and ex-post liability systems can improve social welfare (Kolstad et al., 1990). Food processor and retailer non-GMO standards in the US and EU and the driving role of regulations. Nature 560 (7716), 16. doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05814-6, Castellari, E., Soregaroli, C., Venus, T. J., Wesseler, J. 10:1597. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.01597.